Welcome to The Science of Reading Collective—a free, online community designed to help educators explore and gain confidence in implementing the science of reading alongside experts and peers.
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—Jillian Kaster, your Community Manager
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Science of Reading Collective Zoom Chat #1
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February 16, 2023
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Children are wired for sound, but print is an optional accessory that must be painstakingly bolted on.
Children hear and speak before they learn to read. Sound walls can accelerate students’ articulatory learning and their production of speech, on the road to becoming proficient readers and spellers. In this episode of Literacy Talks, our trio of literacy experts share their experiences and recommendations for integrating sound walls into regular literacy instruction.
In this edWebinar, literacy experts Stacy Hurst and Lindsay Kemeny introduce viewers to sound walls and how they help students make that vital connection between letters and the sounds those letters represent. This session also dives into interactive technology-enhanced sound walls, an innovation that enables students to practice sound articulation. Sound interesting? It’s the newest horizon in high-impact literacy learning.
Download the Reading Horizons Discovery Sound City™ Vowel Valley and Consonant Corner portable Sound Walls.
Tip: After you print a portable Sound Wall for each of your students, laminate and cover untaught graphemes with a permanent marker. When students study the phoneme and corresponding grapheme in instruction, they can use a dry-erase marker to "reveal" the letter(s) they are learning that corresponds to the phoneme.
What’s the difference between a sound wall and a word wall? What about digital sound walls? What should sound wall instruction look like? Stacy Hurst explains it all in our freshly published blog post.
In this edWebinar, literacy experts Stacy Hurst, Lindsay Kemeny, and Donell Pons dig into the how, why, and when of using sound walls and the role they play in helping all learners, with a special focus on English language learners (ELLs), make that vital connection between letters and the sounds those letters represent.
Adults' distaste for decodable books fails to respect the child’s need to exercise a skill. Children want to be self-reliant readers and are delighted when they can apply what they know.
- Lexile: 90L
- Word Count: 49
- Lexile: 400L
- Word Count: 162
- Lexile: 90L
- Word Count: 25
- Lexile: 480L
- Word Count: 91
- Voiced and Voiceless TH
- Lexile: 460L
- Word Count: 159
- Voiced and Voiceless TH
- Lexile: 220L
- Word Count: 43
Alphabetic Principle: the insight that the oral sounds in spoken words are represented by letters in print. It forms the basis of both phonemic decoding and orthographic mapping. (Kilpatrick, 2015)
Anticipatory Set: Prompting students to consider what they know about the topic they are about to read, which yields higher comprehension.
Authentic literature: Texts such as trade books created for the general public. They are not created to facilitate or support reading instruction specifically but rather for reader enjoyment.
Balanced Literacy: A reading instruction approach that incorporates reading, writing, and comprehension utilizing whole language and phonics. This method is not based on the science of reading. Although it does include phonics or word study, the balanced literacy approach often lacks explicit, systematic, and sequential instruction and discourages strategies that embed real reading success.
Choral reading: A reading activity where multiple students read the same text in unison. It can be used to help build fluency, self-confidence, and motivation with beginning or striving students.
Connecting phonics and spelling: Teaching spelling in connection to phonics, enabling students to apply the skills to multiple words that follow the same pattern in spelling and reading.
Decodable text: Text in which a large proportion of the words (approximately 70–80 percent) comprise sound-symbol relationships that have already been taught. Decodable text is used to practice specific decoding skills and form a bridge between learning phonics and applying phonics in independent text. Louis Moats, —Speech to Print
Diagnostic Assessment: This assessment is used to identify a student’s specific skill deficits or behavioral challenges. Data from this assessment is used to make targeted and data-informed intervention plans.
Dictation: Multisensory, guided practice where students practice letter/sound relationships of the skills they are learning. For this activity, the teachers dictate a skill word or sentence to students as they listen and then repeat before writing and reading the word or sentence.
The Discrepancy Model: An outdated model used by some schools to determine if a student will or will not qualify for special education services.
Dyslexia: a specific learning disability that is neurobiological in origin. It is characterized by difficulties with accurate and/or fluent word recognition and by poor spelling and decoding abilities. These difficulties typically result from a deficit in the phonological component of language that is often unexpected in relation to other cognitive abilities and the provision of effective classroom instruction. Secondary consequences may include problems in reading comprehension and reduced reading experience that can impede growth of vocabulary and background knowledge.”
—Adopted by the IDA Board of Directors, Nov. 12, 2002. Many state education codes, including New Jersey, Ohio, and Utah, have adopted this definition.
Dysgraphia: a learning disability that affects writing abilities. It can manifest itself as difficulties with spelling, poor handwriting, and trouble putting thoughts on paper. Because writing requires a complex set of motor and information-processing skills, saying a student has dysgraphia is insufficient. A student with disorders in written expression will benefit from specific accommodations in the learning environment and additional practice learning the skills required to be an accomplished writer. (National Center for Learning Disabilities)
Echo reading: A reading strategy used to support beginning or striving students, where a teacher or a peer partner reads a line from a passage followed by the other partner(s) repeating the same line. This method supports fluency, oral reading, vocabulary development, and comprehension.
Embedded mnemonics: Using pictures that simultaneously remind children of the letter formation and the sound each letter represents improves learning.
Etymology: the study of the origin of words and how their meanings have changed throughout history.
Five Components of Reading: As identified by the National Reading Panel, the five critical components of reading instruction are: phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension.
Grapheme: A grapheme is a letter or a combination of letters that represent a sound (phoneme).
I do. We do. You do.: a catchy phrase coined by Anita Archer to remember the explicit gradual release of the responsibility model that is foundational to effective instruction.
LEA: This stands for Local Education Agency and is a public board of education or other public authority to lead public school districts in planning and decision-making.
Leveled text: Texts with characteristics of high-frequency texts and predictable texts. They are assigned a rank (level) on a difficulty scale, such as A–Z, according to four characteristics: 1. book and print features; 2. content, themes, and ideas; 3. text structure; and 4. language and literacy elements. LETRS, pg. 217.
Morphology: the study of meaningful units of language and how they are combined in word formation. (Moats, 2000)
MTSS: Multi-Tiered System of Supports (MTSS) is a framework that helps educators provide academic and behavioral strategies for students with various needs. Key components of MTSS include the following:
- Universal screening of all students early in the school year
- Tiers of interventions that can be amplified in response to levels of need
- Ongoing data collection and continual assessment
- Schoolwide approach to expectations and supports
- Parent involvement
Multi-model Learning: Multiple methods and modalities of learning are used to engage the language centers’ input and output, including listening, speaking, reading, writing, and kinesthetic.
Orthographic Mapping: The cognitive process by which readers associate speech sounds with written letters (phoneme-grapheme associations) in written words to store them for immediate retrieval “on sight.”
Orthography: The system of marks that make up printed language.
Outcome Assessment: This assessment is used to determine whether a student met the learning or intervention objective as a result of instruction.
Partner reading: A reading activity where two students take turns reading the same text while the other listens and provides feedback. Using this strategy helps build fluency, cooperative learning, and metacognition.
Phoneme: A phoneme is the smallest unit of sound in a language.
Phonemic Awareness: The ability to identify and manipulate individual sounds (phonemes) in spoken words.
Phonemic Proficiency: Phonemic proficiency involves instant, automatic access to the phonemic properties of spoken words.
Phonics: Reading instruction that teaches the relationships between the letters of written language and the sounds of spoken language. The National Reading Panel explains that phonics instruction should be explicit and systematically planned, and sequenced from the most simple components to the most complex.
Phonological Awareness: Phonological awareness is a broad skill that includes identifying and manipulating units of oral language, parts such as words, syllables, and onsets and rimes.
Progress Monitoring: Progress monitoring is used to assess student progress or performance in those areas in which they were identified by universal screening as at-risk for failure (e.g., reading, mathematics, social behavior). See www.RTInetwork.org for more information.
Retrieval Practice: A learning opportunity that increases student performance by having them recall information from long-term memory rather than cramming.
RTI: Response to intervention is a multi-tiered approach to early identification and support of students with learning and behavior needs. It’s generally thought of in the tiers of support listed below.
Tier 1: High-quality classroom instruction, screening, and group intervention
Tier 2: Targeted interventions
Tier 3: Intensive intervention and comprehensive evaluation
For more information, see www.RTInetwork.org.
Science of Reading: Dr. Louisa Moats explains, “The body of work referred to as the ‘science of reading’ is not an ideology, a philosophy, a political agenda, a one-size-fits-all approach, a program of instruction, nor a specific component of instruction. It is the emerging consensus from many related disciplines, based on literally thousands of studies, supported by hundreds of millions of research dollars, conducted across the world in many languages. These studies have revealed a great deal about how we learn to read, what goes wrong when students don’t learn, and what kind of instruction is most likely to work the best for the most students.”
Self-Teaching Hypothesis: The idea that once learners have established their knowledge of grapheme-phoneme correspondences and the essential process of segmenting and blending, they begin to apply this knowledge to new and novel words. Proficient decoders can do this because the reader can pay attention to the order and identity of letters and how they map onto the phonological representations or spoken form of the word.
Semantics: The aspect of language concerned with the meaning of a word, phrase, sentence, or text.
Sight Word: Any word stored in long-term memory and instantly recognized so that its pronunciation and meaning are triggered, regardless of word’s frequency or degree of phonetic regularity.
Sound Wall: Sound walls are a visual display of sound articulation of phonemes and the various letters or letter combinations used to represent those sounds.
Spaced practice: Studying and practicing a new skill over multiple sessions.
Structured Literacy: Structured literacy teaching is the most effective approach for students who experience unusual difficulty learning to read and spell printed words. The term refers to both the content and methods or principles of instruction. It means the same kind of instruction as multisensory structured language education and structured language and literacy.
Structured literacy teaching stands in contrast with popular approaches in many schools but do not teach oral and written language skills in an explicit, systematic manner. Evidence is strong that most students learn to read better with structured teaching of basic language skills and that the components and methods of Structured literacy are critical for students with reading disabilities, including dyslexia. (Structured Literacy: Effective Instruction for Students with Dyslexia and Related Reading Difficulties, IDA website, 3/29/22)
Syntax: The set of principles that dictate the sequence and function of words in a sentence to convey meaning. This includes grammar, sentence variation, and the mechanics of language. (Reading Rockets)
Temporary spelling/Inventive spelling: Students’ spelling attempts using their best judgments before mastering the correct spelling.
Three Cueing System: An instructional and assessment method based on the theory that students use meaning, structure, and visual information sources for cueing their reading of words. This debunked theory implies that readers guess words more than applying orthographic-phonemic cues to read. The Three Cueing System impedes real reading as students are instructed to guess at words instead of being taught to orthographically map words as needed to enter the brain’s long-term memory.
Universal Screening: Universal screening is the process of providing a brief assessment to all students to identify those who may experience lower-than-expected academic outcomes. It is the first step in the RTI process. See www.RTInetwork.org.
Word Wall: Word walls are most commonly referred to as a visual display of high-frequency words, organized alphabetically by the first letter.
Withitness: A skill teachers have that allows them to use their deep knowledge of their students and the content they are teaching to manage the classroom and create successful academic and behavioral outcomes. It is “the art of running a classroom while having eyes in the back of your head”(aaeteachers.org).
When reading instruction is based on the flawed assumption that reading will come pretty easily to most kids as long as they're in the right environment, reading instruction is tilted in favor of the few... The few who don't need much instruction. The few from families who can pay to get their kids what they need.
If a child memorizes 10 words, the child can only read 10 words. But if a child learns 10 sounds (and the letters that spell those sounds), the child will be able to read 350 three-sound words, 4,320 four-sound words and 21,650 five-sound words.
This podcast episode of Literacy Talks tackles the need to rethink and redesign the way we approach high-frequency words in literacy instruction. Advice centers around using phonics-based strategies to help learners connect the sounds and meanings of high-frequency words so they become part of students’ working memory.
This blog gives step-by-step instructions to teach high-frequency words and the why behind it.
How to Teach Most Common Words
This three-minute video explains why facilitating orthographic mapping is essential to learning high-frequency words and models how to align your instruction to the SoR.
This downloadable bookmark gives step-by-step instructions aligned with the science of reading on teaching any high-frequency word.
Have you heard the buzz around the science of reading (SoR) lately? Actually, it’s less of a buzz for many of us and more like the roar emanated by a turbo jet. There’s no literacy talk without the mention of the SoR because something fantastic has been unearthed,...
The internationally recognized literacy leader shared words of wisdom on a recent episode of the Literacy Talks podcast. During her distinguished career, Dr. Anita Archer has shared many what we like to call “Archerisms,” which are behaviors and reminders to help...
Grade retention came up in a conversation with one of my school’s administrators last week. Like many states, hers requires a student to repeat third grade if they are not proficient readers by its conclusion. She was bemoaning that, too often, the science of reading...
Children hear and speak before they learn to read. Sound walls can accelerate students' articulatory learning and their production of speech, on the road to becoming proficient readers and spellers....
Research in the science of reading is expanding in breadth and depth, and the data points to important changes in classroom instructional practice and materials. The challenge for frontline...
MTSS is more than a hot topic or a trend in literacy teaching and learning. In this Literacy Talks podcast episode, our three experts share their insights into making a Multi-Tiered System of...
If you love teaching reading, and you love reading, this episode of Literacy Talks is for you! Our trio talks in-depth about the professional books that have inspired them, informed their practice,...
In this episode of Literacy Talks, our three literacy experts share their experiences at the recent 2022 Plain Talk conference in New Orleans. Listeners will get a “you are there” recap of the most...
This episode of Literacy Talks explores how reading leaders and practitioners can collaborate. Our shared goal? To help teachers learn and apply the methods of reading science to help all students...
Legislation that supports and funds initiatives to boost literacy can make a difference for students, educators, families, and communities. In this episode of Literacy Talks, our experts focus on...
In this episode of Literacy Talks our three literacy experts share some of their reading instruction pet peeves. From humorous to heartwarming, you’ll hear why English is not a complicated language...
Decodable text can be a critical component of what you do as a reading teacher. In this episode of Literacy Talks, hear three experts explore the learning connection between phonics instruction and...
In this episode of Literacy Talks our terrific trio of reading experts tackles the need to rethink and redesign the way we approach sight words and high frequency words in literacy instruction....
In the world of education and instructional approaches, the pendulum is always swinging. In early literacy, there’s a new and welcome emphasis on applying the science of reading to teaching...
If you were among the fortunate educators who attended The Reading League 2022 Conference in Syracuse, NY, you’ll enjoy this conversation between our Literacy Talks hosts and the speakers who...
The early literacy landscape is filled with phonics, decoding skills, and all the components of Structured Literacy instruction. Is there room for writing? Our three Literacy Talks hosts say, “Yes!”...
Sharing the Knowledge: A Recap from the Society for the Scientific Study of Reading Conference (SSSR)
There are so many valuable reading and literacy conferences it can be challenging to attend them all, but our Literacy Talks audience is in luck. Donell Pons, one of our podcast hosts, traveled to...
Too often, parents, classroom teachers, administrators, and even pediatricians have difficulty identifying the signs of dyslexia. Students are sometimes adept at hiding their reading struggles…and...
This is an episode to listen to many times over and share with your literacy colleagues. With featured guest Dr. Anita Archer, this Literacy Talks episode covers the literacy landscape and explores...
For many of us, one book can make a profound difference in how we teach, our understanding of reading science, and our insights into how students learn to read. In this episode of Literacy Talks,...
Ask most reading teachers if they learned everything they needed while in college, and chances are, they’ll say no. Hands-on classroom experience and in-the-classroom coaching and mentoring have...
This episode can be a classroom game-changer. For many of us, spelling means a weekly word list handed out on Monday and assessed on Friday. In this episode of Literacy Talks, our experts share new...
Teaching is an art, and yes, it’s a science as well. In this episode of Literacy Talks, our three literacy experts talk about both the art and science of teaching. They unpack the need for educators...
Educators’ knowledge about reading science, its’ practical applications in the classroom, and its impacts on students’ experience is core to literacy learning and success. In this episode of...
Teaching Pre-K–3 learners to make sound/symbol connections can be challenging. In this episode of Literacy Talks, our trio of literacy experts tackles this challenge with wit, insight, and a...
In November 2022, our Literacy Talks hosts attended the International Dyslexia Association’s 73rd annual conference. In this episode, you’ll have the opportunity to travel with them virtually as...
The reading pendulum is swinging, and in this episode of Literacy Talks, our reading experts talk candidly about how to frame and navigate the changing priorities and emphases. This conversation...
Our Literacy Talks trio of hosts took time to reflect on the things they’re grateful for and what they’re looking forward to in the months ahead. From the strides their own children are making in...
July 25, 2018 | Duration: 00:38:59 | With Laura Axtell Featuring John Larmer, Nick Provenzano SEASON 1, EPISODE 6 In this episode, Laura speaks to experts, a parent, and a current student...
July 09, 2018 | Duration: 00:32:00 | With Laura Axtell Featuring Jim Wright, Dr. Douglas Fuchs, Lynn Hobratschk SEASON 1, EPISODE 5 In this episode, Laura speaks to educators and experts...
June 21, 2018 | Duration: 00:31:44 | With Laura Axtell Featuring Jim Wright, Dr. Douglas Fuchs SEASON 1, EPISODE 4 In this episode, Laura speaks to educators and experts about Response to...
June 11, 2018 | Duration: 00:41:16 | With Laura Axtell Featuring Rebecca Treiman SEASON 1, EPISODE 3 In this episode, Laura speaks to experts and educators about the complexities and...
May 29, 2018 | Duration: 00:32:51 | With Laura Axtell Featuring Lindsie, Rob Rickenbrode, Liz Barnes, Dr. Emily Cantrell, Lisa Toole SEASON 1, EPISODE 2 Subscribe on iTunes or Stitcher This...
May 17, 2018 | Duration: 00:39:40 | With Laura Axtell Featuring Patricia Schroder, Rob Rickenbrode, Dr. Emily Cantrell season 1, EPISODE 1 The first episode of the inaugural season of...
January 08, 2019 | Duration: 00:35:01 | With Laura Axtell Featuring Dr. Louise Spear-Swerling season 2, EPISODE 6 An extensive conversation with Dr. Louise Spear-Swerling discussing the...
December 19, 2018 | Duration: 00:28:25 | With Laura Axtell Featuring Dr. William Therrien, Lauren Haskins season 2, EPISODE 5 This episode includes conversations with a parent of a student...
December 04, 2018 | Duration: 00:40:02 | With Laura Axtell Featuring Michael Karlin, Brianna Hodges season 2, EPISODE 4 Laura addresses the topic of Ed Tech in the Classroom and more...
November 20, 2018 | Duration: 00:34:43 | With Laura Axtell Featuring Dr. Michael W. Smith, Christopher Butts season 2, EPISODE 3 Laura continues the conversation about research and recommendations...
November 07, 2018 | Duration: 00:32:51 | With Laura Axtell Featuring Dr. Jeffrey Wilhelm season 2, EPISODE 2 In Part One of a Two-Part series, Laura explores research and recommendations...
October 23, 2018 | Duration: 00:29:11 | With Laura Axtell Featuring Dr. Mark S. Seidenberg season 2, EPISODE 1 Laura discusses various topics and issues in reading with Dr Seidenberg. ...
October 15, 2019 | Duration: 00:43:22 | With Reading Horizons Featuring Rann Miller SEASON 3, EPISODE 6 Rann Miller, educator, writer, and trainer, shares his insights and suggestions...
October 01, 2019 | Duration: 00:39:40 | With Reading Horizons Featuring Sarah Sayko, Dr. Hollins-Sims, Dr. Zesiger SEASON 3, EPISODE 5 Increasing engagement with the families of our...
September 17, 2019 | Duration: 00:38:25 | With Reading Horizons Featuring Sarah Sayko, Josh Spangler, Tambra Isenberg SEASON 3, EPISODE 4 There are many challenges connected to reading...
August 20, 2019 | Duration: 00:23:30 | With Reading Horizons Featuring Curtis, Tammy SEASON 3, EPISODE 3 Shame is a powerful emotion. Recently, the role of shame and its impact on...
August 20, 2019 | Duration: 00:20:19 | With Reading Horizons Featuring Greg, Lindsie SEASON 3, EPISODE 2 Shame is a powerful emotion. Recently, the role of shame and its impact on...
August 06, 2019 | Duration: 00:24:51 | With Reading Horizons Featuring Dr. Amy Murdoch SEASON 3, EPISODE 1 Dr. Amy Murdoch discusses the importance of text in reading instruction for...
March 17, 2020 | Duration: 00:36:10 | With Reading Horizons Featuring Dr. Tyrone Howard, Dr. Julie Washington, Dr. Patrick Tudryn, Keith Dysarz season 4, EPISODE 6 Our four guests continue...
March 17, 2020 | Duration: 00:26:03 | With Reading Horizons Featuring Dr. Tyrone Howard, Dr. Julie Washington, Dr. Patrick Tudryn, Keith Dysarz SEASON 4, EPISODE 5 Four guests share...
March 03, 2020 | Duration: 00:32:34 | With Reading Horizons Featuring Wendy Bertagnole SEASON 4, EPISODE 4 A parent/former educator discusses her journey of discovery with her own son's...
March 18, 2021 | Duration: 00:25:37 | With Reading Horizons Featuring Dr. Ivy Bonk SEASON 4, EPISODE 3 Dr. Ivy Bonk joins Laura Axtell on Podclassed as they discuss the impact of childhood...
February 04, 2020 | Duration: 00:31:28 | With Reading Horizons Featuring Dr. Geoffrey Borman SEASON 4, EPISODE 2 A new study with middle school students shows promising results for improving...
January 21, 2020 | Duration: 00:36:20 | With Reading Horizons Featuring Dr. Wendy Thompson SEASON 4, EPISODE 1 An experienced educator discusses the value of communication with students in...
October 20, 2020 | Duration: 00:32:55 | With Reading Horizons Featuring Laura Axtell, M.Ed. EPISODE 6 Understanding the unique characteristics of older struggling readers is critical...
September 29, 2020 | Duration: 00:41:26 | With Laura Axtell, M.Ed. Featuring William Van Cleave EPISODE 5 William Van Cleave shares insights, research, and instructional considerations...
September 15, 2020 | Duration: 00:33:20 | With Reading Horizons Featuring Sara Roth EPISODE 4 Many parents have made or will make, decisions about how to best provide education for...
September 01, 2020 | Duration: 00:25:32 | With Reading Horizons Featuring Pete Wright EPISODE 3 Host, Laura Axtell, M.Ed., continues her conversation with Peter Wright, special education...
August 18, 2020 | Duration: 00:29:03 | With Poclassed Featuring Pete Wright EPISODE 2 A conversation with Peter Wright, special education lawyer and founder of Wrightslaw. This...
August 04, 2020 | Duration: 00:32:07 | With Reading Horizons Featuring Stacy Hurst, M.Ed. EPISODE 1 Stacy Hurst, M.Ed., shares her unique journey through the world of education,...
May 06, 2021 | Duration: 00:33:34 | With Reading Horizons Featuring Paul Black, M.Ed SEASON 5, EPISODE 6 Paul Black, M.Ed, Ed.S., NCSP, a school psychologist and literacy consultant, joins...
April 21, 2021 | Duration: 00:36:07 | With Reading Horizons Featuring Dr. Barbara Wirostko and Donell Pons, M.Ed., MAT SEASON 5, EPISODE 5 Dr. Barbara Wirostko and Donell Pons, M.Ed, MAT,...
March 18, 2021 | Duration: 00:25:37 | With Reading Horizons Featuring Dr. Ivy Bonk SEASON 5, EPISODE 4 Dr. Ivy Bonk joins Laura Axtell on Podclassed as they discuss the impact of childhood...
March 03, 2021 | Duration: 00:39:41 | With Reading Horizons Featuring Carrie Drake Saunderson, MA SEASON 5, EPISODE 3 Carrie Drake Saunderson, MA, joins the host of Podclassed, Laura Axtell,...
February 16, 2021 | Duration: 00:32:28 | With Reading Horizons Featuring Dr. William Blake and Shantell Berrett Blake, MAseason 6, EPISODE 2 In this episode of Podclassed, Dr. William...
February 02, 2021 | Duration: 00:35:33 | With Reading Horizons Featuring Dr. Lori Desautels season 6, EPISODE 1 To kick off Season 6 of Podclassed, Dr. Lori Desautels explores the impact...